worldwide use Biogents' BG-Sentinel for mosquito
surveillance and monitoring
A large and growing number of scientific studies
shows that Biogents' BG-Sentinel (a.k.a.the BG trap or BGS
trap) is a superior trap for mosquito surveillance
The exceptional capture rates of this trap are
documented in more than 150 scientific publications: Online-database with publications on
studies using the BG-Sentinel.
standard trap for adult Stegomyia
BG-Sentinel trap has been found to collect Ae.aegypti and Ae.
effectively than the standard CDC light trap. [...]
Use of BG-Lure is strongly recommended. Place in areas
inside or outside where you suspect adults to occur."
(Armed Forces Pest Management Board 2012)
proprietary attractant, the BG-Lure, and without the
need to carbon dioxide, the BG-Sentinel already is
the superior trap for Stegomyia
mosquitoes: especially the yellow fever or dengue
Kröckel et al. 2006; Maciel de Freitas et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b; Williams et al. 2006,
2007), the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes
albopictus (e.g. Meeraus et al. 2008; Krüger
& Hagen 2007; Farajollahi et al. 2009,
Pagès et al. 2009), or the Polynesian tiger
(Schmaedick et al. 2008, Hapairai et al.
The addition of carbon dioxide further enhances
the sensitivity for Ae. albopictus and Ae.
aegypti. This configuration is normally used by
the Australian Quarantine Inspection Service at Darwin
since 2009/10. By mid-2011, AQUIS had already
intercepted Ae. aegypti four times and Ae.
albopictus one time at Darwin port (Nguyen et al.
2010; Whelan et al. 2011).
comparison, no adult exotic mosquitoes have been
detected in routine CO2 baited EVS traps
at Darwin port areas since the current routine
monitoring program recommenced in 29/09/99. It is
therefore recommended that routine CO2
baited BG traps be incorporated into quarantine
surveillance around risk ports in Australia to
detect exotic Aedes mosquitoes."
(Whelan et al. 2011)
Lacroix et al. (2009a, 2009b) placed wire
cages, each with three live laboratory mice, on the
bottom of BG-Sentinels and report impressive catch rates
for both male and female Ae.
albopictus on the island of La Réunion.
Crepeau et al. (2013) looked on the effect of
BG-Sentinel trap placement on Ae.
albopictus catch rates and report consistently
higher catch rates for shaded or partially shaded
location, compared to sunny places.
without carbon dioxide
Although carbon dioxide further enhances the
efficacy of the BG-Sentinel, the trap is already an
excellent trap for Stegomyia mosquitoes when
baited with the BG-Lure alone.
with the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes
The BG-Sentinel with the BG-Lure yields results
similar to the Human Landing Collection
projects in different Italian cities showed that
BG-Sentinel traps collects similar numbers of Aedes
albopictus females as human landing
collections in 30 to 90 minutes. The BG-Sentinel, used
only with the BG-Lure and without carbon dioxide, thus
gave excellent measures of the biting pressure. About
half of the females captured had either had a recent
bloodmeal, or they were gravid or parous; they would
have been especially interesting in the search for
disease agents (summarised in Rose et al. 2010).
An evaluation study of the BG-Sentinel tested the trap as management tool to reduce Aedes albopictus nuisance in Cesena, North Italy (Engelbrecht 2015). 3 intervention sites were compared with 3 contol sites. It could be shown that 64% and 87% fewer Ae. albopictus individuals were collected by human landing collections at the intervention sites with the BG-Sentinel mosquito traps, as compared to the untreated control sites. These results indicate that the sustained use and
proper placement of efficient mosquito traps can significantly reduce Ae. albopictus biting pressure.
Other species that are captured well without the
need for carbon dioxide include Culex
quinquefasciatus (e.g. Maciel de Freitas et al. 2006) and Ae.
mediovittatus (Little 2011). Schmied
et al. (2008) used worn socks to
gambiae. Scholte et al. (2012)
captured the invasive mosquito Aedes
atropalpus in The Netherlands without using CO2.
dioxide, a wide range of mosquito species
The most potent attractant for most mosquito
species remains carbon dioxide. Used with CO2,
the BG-Sentinel has been shown to be a high
performace mosquito trap with a wide range of captured
mosquitoes, including important invasive mosquito
Examples include a study in Oregon, USA, where
Irish et al. (2008) captured at least 10 different Culex,
species; in addition the number of species in the
BG-Sentinel was higher than that collected in an EVS
Meeraus et al. (2008) caught at least 10 species
from the genera Culex,
in Northern Virginia. Ae.
japonicus, an invasive species also for Europe,
was captured better by the BG-Sentinel than the by the
CDC trap or the CMT-20 trap (all operated with carbon
dioxide). The same species was also collected in Germay
by Werner et al. (2012), using a BG-Sentinel with
In Florida, Obenauer et al. (2009) captured at
least 10 species from not less than 6 genera (Culex, Aedes,
Psorophora, Toxorhynchites and Anopheles).
BG-Sentinel significantly outperformed the two other
traps also tested in this study (the MM-X and the
Fay-Prince trap) at capturing Ae.
triseriatus, a potentially invasive mosquito for
Europe, as well as three additional species.
Antonaci Gama et al. (2012) collected at least 25
species belonging to nine genera (Culex,
Aedes, Aedeomyia, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, Mansonia, Uranotaenia,
Wyeomyia and Anopheles)
in the in the State of Rondônia,
Roiz et al. (2012) compared the efficacy of
different CO2-baited BG-Sentinel traps
(alone, with the BG-Lure, and with octenol) to that of
a CO2-baited CDC trap for
potential West-Nile vectores in a Mediterranean
wetland in Spain. All BG-Sentinels captured significatly
atroparvus than the CDC trap. Additionally
baited with the BG-Lure or with octenol, there
was no significant difference to the CDC trap for Culex
pipiens and Cx
but a significantly smaller catch rate to the
BG-Sentineil with carbon dioxide alone. The authors also
found that the BG-Sentinels collected significantly more
atroparvus and Cx
modestus. With the addition of either the
BG-Lure or octenol, the BG-Sentinel always performed,
partly significantly, better for bloodfed
pipiens and Cx
than the CDC trap. These findings are especially
important for efficiently finding disease agents such as
the West-Nile Virus in mosquitoes.
Using the BG-Sentinel
only with the BG-Lure, Ae.
albopictus was first recorded on York Island in
the Torres Strait off Australia (Ritchie et
al. 2006) and in Gabon (Krüger
& Hagen 2007). On the French
Polynesian Islands of Moorea and Tahiti, Marie &
Bossin (2013) recorded adults of the new-world-mosquito
mitchellii using BG-Sentinels and backpack
First records using the BG-Sentinel
with carbon dioxide include Anopheles
albimanus on Staint Kitts in the Caribbean
(Muhammend & Smith 2011) and and adults of
Mansonia flaveola in
State of Rondônia, Brazil (Antonaci Gama
et al. 2012).
Werner et al. (2012) captured
adults of Ae.
japonicus and Culiseta
longiareolata in Germany. The same surveillance
program also yielded a first record of Anopheles
daciae for Germany in 2011 (Kronefeld et al. 2012). In this surveillance
regime, the traps (baited with the BG-Lure) were
operated permanently, with the catch collected every
seven days. Carbon dioxide was added to the trap for 24
hours prior to the collection of the catch.
A similar regime with a permanent operation of the
traps was followed in another German surveillance
program in 2012, only that the sampels were collected on
a two-weekly basis, with carbon dioxide also being added
for 24 hours prior to the collection. Ovitraps were used
additionally. When invasive mosquitoes were
detected at a given location, the surveillance regime
was switched to placing more ovitraps and to putting up
additional BG-Sentinels, all with a constant use of CO2
and a weekly collection of the catch. With this
surveillance strategy, thirteen female and one male
Ae. albopictus were captured a
three different locations in southern Germany,
indicating a regular introduction of the species into
the country (Becker et al. 2012). The ovitraps were not
BG-Sentinel with carbon dioxide
in an aluvial forrest near Grafenhofen, Bavaria.
An umbrella protected the catch from the frequent
rainfall during the study.
new BG-Sentinel 2
new BG-Sentinel 2
new BG-Sentinel 2
new BG-Sentinel 2
products for researchers
Our online-database with
publications on studies using the BG-Sentinel.
Where to purchase?
The new BG-Sentinel 2 as well as the original version can be ordered by contacting our customer support
by email (email@example.com)
or fax (+49 941 569 921 68).
can also consult our
Infos on Biogents
Who is Biogents?
develops and produces mosquito traps for the end consumer
Biogents performs contract R&D for producers
of mosquito repellents and related products.
Go to Biogents Webpage
What else could be
of open access journals for the medical entomologist.